An employer may not terminate the contract without an award, advance notice or indemnity except in the following cases, and provided that he gives the employee a chance to state his reasons for objecting to the termination:
- If, during or by reason of the work, the employee assaults the employer, the manager in-charge or any of his superiors.
- If the employee fails to perform his essential obligations arising from the work contract, or to obey legitimate orders, or if, in spite of written warnings, he deliberately fails to observe the instructions related to the safety of work and employees as may be posted by the employer in a prominent place.
- If it is established that the employee has committed a misconduct or an act infringing on honesty or integrity.
- If the employee deliberately commits any act or default with the intent to cause material loss to the employer, provided that the latter shall report the incident to the appropriate authorities within twenty-four hours from being aware of such occurrence.
- If the employee resorts to forgery in order to obtain the job.
- If the employee is hired on probation.
- If the employee is absent without valid reason for more than thirty days in one year or for more than fifteen consecutive days, provided that the dismissal be preceded by a written warning from the employer to the employee if the latter is absent for twenty days in the first case and for ten days in the second.
- If the employee unlawfully takes advantage of his position for personal gain.
- If the employee discloses work- related industrial or commercial secrets.